ASEAN-China Closer Cooperation: Paving the Way for a South China Sea Code of Conduct


In recent years, the South China Sea has been a focal point of international attention, primarily due to territorial disputes and competing maritime claims among various Southeast Asian nations and China. Amidst the geopolitical tensions, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have been working diligently to foster closer cooperation and establish a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the South China Sea. This article delves into the significant developments and efforts by ASEAN and China to achieve a lasting resolution and outlines the path forward.

A History of Tensions

The South China Sea has long been a source of contention, with overlapping territorial claims from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan. These disputes have led to heightened tensions and concerns over regional stability. However, both ASEAN and China have recognized the necessity of addressing these issues through diplomatic channels.

The Framework Agreement

In 2002, ASEAN and China signed the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC), signaling their commitment to peaceful dispute resolution and the maintenance of regional stability. While the DOC laid the foundation for cooperation, it was a non-binding agreement. Subsequently, efforts were made to develop a legally binding Code of Conduct.

Recent Progress

Recent years have witnessed significant progress in the negotiations for a South China Sea Code of Conduct. Key developments include:

1. Declaration of Conduct (DOC) Implementation Guidelines

In 2017, both parties endorsed the DOC Implementation Guidelines, providing a framework for practical cooperation. This marked a crucial step towards implementing the principles outlined in the DOC.

2. Negotiation Process

The negotiation process has been ongoing, with regular meetings and consultations between ASEAN and Chinese officials. While challenges persist, both sides remain committed to reaching a mutually agreeable CoC.

3. ASEAN-China Cooperation Fund

The establishment of the ASEAN-China Cooperation Fund has facilitated projects aimed at enhancing trust and confidence-building measures among stakeholders in the South China Sea. These projects promote collaboration in areas such as marine environmental protection and scientific research.

The Road Ahead

The path towards a South China Sea Code of Conduct is not without obstacles, but it is a vital step towards regional stability and conflict resolution. It is imperative for both ASEAN and China to:

1. Maintain Diplomatic Channels

Diplomacy remains the primary avenue for resolving disputes in the South China Sea. Regular dialogues and negotiations are essential to build trust and foster cooperation.

2. Encourage Multilateralism

Engaging with other stakeholders, including the United States, Japan, and regional organizations, can contribute to a comprehensive solution and help prevent unilateral actions that may exacerbate tensions.

3. Promote Transparency

Both parties should enhance transparency regarding their actions and intentions in the South China Sea. Confidence-building measures, such as joint patrols and information sharing, can help reduce misunderstandings.


As ASEAN and China edge closer to a South China Sea Code of Conduct, it is evident that diplomatic efforts and cooperation are essential to resolving the complex issues surrounding this strategically significant region. While challenges persist, the commitment of both parties to peaceful dispute resolution provides hope for a more stable and harmonious South China Sea.

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